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Disease and Infections of Xenopus

Prevention is always the best medicine !
Bacterial infections very preventable by not overfeeding, not overcrowding, good housekeeping, maintaining a temperature below 75 F and the use of the probiotic bacteria like Lymnozyme® . We use it! The four strains of bacteria in Lymnozyme are very effective against aeromonas and pseudomonas, but also most gram negative microbes including vibrio, streptococcus, etc.

Red Leg

Aeromonas hydrophila
, a gram-negative bacterium bacteria, is one the most common diseases that Xenopus can suffer. It is can be widespread in the body because it is carried by the blood. Common symptoms are red legs and swelling. The disease then it advances to the point to where the flesh rots off of the legs. (photo left) Once is has advanced to the stages chances are the animal will not survive. We recommend euthanizing the animal.

(Tetracycline oral: 1mg/5g body weight for 5 days).Use salt at a concentration of 100 mM and add 100 micrograms per ml oxytetracycline to the water for a week. Change the water every day. Isolate infected animals and all animals it had contact with. Disinfect all nets and tanks.

The most reliable form of antibiotic delivery is by injection preformed by expert. See Klymkowsky Lab Treatment .

Hobbyists can obtain antibiotics from the pet shop such as Maracyn II® and Maracyn Plus® which are used for Bacterial infections. These can be used in conjunction with salt.

Bloated ACF's

  Bloated Frog

There are two types of bloat. First is a hard bloated frog that appears all of the sudden at the top of your tank. This frog should be immediately removed and quarantined. This is caused by a internal bacterial infection and sadly almost always fatal. Hobbyists can obtain Maracyn II® and Maracyn Plus® which are used for Bloat. These can be used in conjunction with salt.

Second is a "Soft squishy frog bloat" Like a the Michelin Man pictured to the left. This is caused by an abnormal accumulation of serious bodily fluids due to improper body metabolism. Many times damaged kidneys or liver no longer function properly causing edema. An expert can puncture to release fluids. Frogs can live for a very long time in this state.
Salt bath is recommended for this type of bloat.

A Hobbyist's Account of Curing Bloat aka Dropsy


Fungal Infections
Fungal infections are common in amphibians and can often be secondary to bacterial infections.

Treatments: Mardel Maroxy® Anti-fungal solution available at pet shops. Maroxy is also effective against some bacteria.

Methylene Blue is effective against fungal infections. Can be done as a tank treatment or a dip. We recommend following the manufacture's directions.
Kordon® Methylene Blue .



  Additional Helpful Links
African Clawed Frog Disease and Injury (excellent photos)
Disease, Illness and Injury Pictures (Graphic Photos)
Disease and Illness in Detail
Preventing Illness & Disease
Bloated Frog A Hobbyist's Account of Curing Bloat aka Dropsy
Treating Red Leg Klymkowsky Lab On-line Methods -based on Gerhart Lab Protocols
IACUC Learning Module - Xenopus laevis Common Diseases
Xlaevis.com Health and Disease

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